雲端是甚麼?

雲端應用程式設計-授課教授:XO

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雲端是甚麼?

文章Ian Lau » 週六 4月 02, 2016 12:07 am

當今社會,大家口中議論紛紛的雲端到底是甚麼?
一個儲存空間?一個平台?一堆主機跟一堆程式?
這些答案都是對的,不過如此模稜兩可,大概無法真正解釋甚麼是雲端!

雲端的服務有主要可以分成三大類
1.SaaS (Software as a Service)
2.PaaS (Platform as a Service)
3.IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service)

雲的概念,如上所示,就是一種"服務"
這類的服務,將資料透過網路交給另一台主機來處理(儲存/運算)
如此一來,客戶只要能連上網路,就可以何時何地對資料存取,
而同時只要資料存在雲端,"雲端的程式"亦可以隨時服務該客戶

那為何又要分那麼多類呢?
其實他們的目的不盡相同,使用的族群也有差異
就快速的做一個分類

SaaS有時又稱為即需即用軟體,如google雲端硬碟,信箱,FB,Youtube等,
只要透過一組帳密,即可在任何平台透過網路使用這項軟體服務。

PaaS就是一個「預先」配置好作業系統,並且可以運行你的軟體(網站)的服務。
軟體開發人員能將雲基礎設施部署與創建至客戶端,
藉此獲得使用編程語言、程式庫與服務。而不需管理
與控制雲(租賃主機)基礎設施,包含網路、伺服器、操作系統或存儲等,
只需要控制上層的應用程式部署與應用代管的環境。

IaaS程式開發人員使用處理、儲存、網路以及各種基礎運算資源,
部署與執行作業系統或應用程式等各種軟體。開發人員無須購買伺服器、
軟體等網路設備,即可任意部署和運行處理、存儲、網絡和其它基本的計算資源,
不能控管或控制底層的基礎設施,但是可以控制作業系統、儲存裝置、
已部署的應用程式,有時也可以有限度地控制特定的網路元件,像是主機端防火牆。

這三種雲端服務分別是針對不同的人來提供:
SaaS:針對一般用戶,不需要知道應用程式怎麼形成的,只要能用、會用就好。
PaaS:針對應用程式開發人員,不需要知道跑什麼程式環境、作業系統,只要利用擅長的語言開發就好。
IaaS:針對一般IT人員,不需要知道網路架構、server硬體規格為何,只要建置出企業內部需要的服務即可。

圖檔
上圖可知,使用者族群如倒金字塔,而下層的用戶亦可是上層的使用者

傳統開發一套系統,可能要選主機,作業系統,設定一堆環境,並且需要維護整個主機的運作
如今雲的概念,讓軟體開發者能省掉維護的成本,透過租賃的方式,將程式部署到遠端的主機
也讓一般網際網路的user,更加方便,不需要因為平台的更動,而更新其軟體

圖檔

簡單來說,就是租一個空間,在該空間上,使用/開發一種服務,而當你今天是扮演什麼樣的角色,
不同的需求,會有不同的選擇,但首先你要瞭解你在使用甚麼,別人提供什麼樣的服務,而你要租甚麼

另外,對於native app的開發,有一種叫BaaS的服務(Backend as a Service),因為客戶端無法透過瀏覽器本身驅動
所以介面由原生的程式去構成,而使用雲端的時機在於後端的服務,將運算交由後端處理,再透過連線丟資料給客戶端的程式,進而呈現資料

而上課所教學的Stackato即為一種PaaS,我們要學的是如何藉此部署一支程式,設定資源,並啟動該服務
謝謝大家的閱讀,如果有任何錯誤也請各位批評指教!

參考資源:
IaaS Wiki:https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%9F%BA%E7%A4%8E%E8%A8%AD%E6%96%BD%E5%8D%B3%E6%9C%8D%E5%8B%99
PaaS Wiki:https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%B9%B3%E5%8F%B0%E5%8D%B3%E6%9C%8D%E5%8A%A1
SaaS Wiki:https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E8%BD%AF%E4%BB%B6%E5%8D%B3%E6%9C%8D%E5%8A%A1
BaaS:http://wiki.mbalib.com/zh-tw/%E5%90%8E%E7%AB%AF%E5%8D%B3%E6%9C%8D%E5%8A%A1
雲端基礎概念(IaaS PaaS SaaS):http://joseph.miniasp.com/post/2015/04/16/%E9%9B%B2%E7%AB%AF%E5%9F%BA%E7%A4%8E%E6%A6%82%E5%BF%B5(IaaS-PaaS-SaaS).aspx
Ian Lau
剛學走路的小朋友
 
文章: 3
註冊時間: 週二 3月 08, 2016 10:00 am

Re: 雲端是甚麼?

文章XO » 週六 4月 02, 2016 7:29 pm

好棒!開張了!
同學們!一起來共襄盛舉吧!
eXtra Old 的是我「不是酒」哦!
제 이름은 오조휘 입니다

臉書裡依舊是 Extra.Old: http://www.facebook.com/extra.old
頭像
XO
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來自: CQ Inc.

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